See also: KNMI Climate Explorer ICA&D Copernicus/C3S_311a_Lot4

Project info


Project info

Full project documentation as well as papers in peer reviewed journals and other publications are presented below. In each document, one or more staff members of the ECA&D project team is involved. Together, these documents provide an overview of the project history, the present status and our future plans. Furthermore, links to related activities and organizations and links to additional sources of daily data and analysis tools are presented below.

ECA&D documents
Journal papers
Other publications



ECA&D documents

Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD)

Document describing the methods used for producing blended series and indices, and showing the quality control and homogeneity checks.


ECA&D Data policy document

Document with the ECA&D data policy.
Data policy


ECA&D flyer

Flyer with information about ECA&D.


ECA&D Final Report for ECSN

van Engelen, Aryan, Albert Klein Tank, Gerard van der Schrier and Lisette Klok, 2008. European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D), Report 2008, "Towards an operational system for assessing observed changes in climate extremes". KNMI, De Bilt, The Netherlands, 68pp.
ECA&D Report 2008


Assessment report, 2002

Klein Tank, Albert, Janet Wijngaard and Aryan van Engelen, 2002. Climate of Europe; Assessment of observed daily temperature and precipitation extremes. KNMI, De Bilt, the Netherlands, 36pp.
Report in low resolution  Report in high resolution  Press release


Journal papers

Feb 2019 - Blending without breaks (HomBlend) paper

A. A. Squintu, G. van der Schrier, EJM van den Besselaar and RC Cornes, 2019, J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. (submitted).


Oct 2018 - Snow depth paper

A. Fontrodona Bach, G. van der Schrier, L.A. Melsen, A.M.G. Klein Tank and A.J. Teiling, 2018, Geophys. Res. Lett. (accepted), doi:10.1002/2018GL079799R


Sept 2018 - Homogenization paper

A. A. Squintu, G. van der Schrier, Y. Brugnara and A.M.G. Klein Tank, 2019, Intern. J. Climatology 39(3):1243-1261, doi:10.1002/joc.5874


Sept 2018 - E-OBS paper

R. C. Cornes, G. van der Schrier, E. J. M. van den Besselaar, and P. D. Jones, 2018, An Ensemble Version of the E‐OBS Temperature and Precipitation Datasets, J. Geophys. Res. (atmospheres), doi:10.1029/2017JD028200.


Oct 2015 - Sunshine paper

E.J.M. van den Besselaar, A. Sanchez-Lorenzo, M. Wild, A.M.G. Klein Tank and A.T.J. de Laat, 2015, Relationship between sunshine duration and temperature trends across Europe since the second half of the twentieth century, J. Geophys. Res. (Atmospheres), 120:10.832-10.836, doi:10.1002/2015JD023640


Jan 2015 - ICA&D paper

E.J.M. van den Besselaar, A.M.G. Klein Tank, G. van der Schrier, et al., 2015. International Climate Assessment & Dataset: Climate Services Across Borders. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1, 2015, 16-21, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00249.1


Nov 2014 - Urbanization effects on temperature

A. Chrysanthou, G. van der Schrier, EJM. van den Besselaar, AMG. Klein Tank, T. Brandsma, 2014. The effects of urbanization on the rise of the European temperature since 1960. Geophys. Res. Lett., 4, 2014, 41, 7716-7722, doi:10.1002/2014GL061154


Nov 2013 - Precipitation extremes paper

R. Leander, T. A. Buishand , A.M.G. Klein Tank, 2013. An alternative index for the contribution of precipitation on very wet days to the total precipitation. J. Climate, 27, 1365-1378. doi:10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00144.1


25 Apr 2013 - European temperature paper

G. van der Schrier, E.J.M. van den Besselaar, A.M.G. Klein Tank, G. Verver, 2013. Monitoring European averaged temperature based on the E-OBS gridded dataset. J. Geophys. Res. (Atmospheres), doi:10.1002/jgrd.50444


16 Nov 2012 - Precipitation extremes paper

E.J.M. van den Besselaar, A.M.G. Klein Tank, T.A. Buishand, 2012. Trends in European precipitation extremes over 1951-2010. Int. J. Climatol., doi:10.1002/joc.3619


25 Jun 2012 - Wind gusts thresholds for Meteoalarm paper

Stepek, A., I.L. Wijnant, G. van der Schrier, E.J.M. van den Besselaar, A.M.G. Klein Tank, 2012. Severe wind gust thresholds for Meteoalarm derived from uniform return periods in ECA&D. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 12, 1969-1981, doi:10.5194/nhess-12-1969-2012


9 May 2012 - Wine index paper

G. van der Schrier, G. Horstink, E.J.M. van den Besselaar, A.M.G. Klein Tank, 2012. ECA&D: A high-resolution dataset for monitoring climate change and effects on viticulture in Europe. In: proceedings of the IXth Intern. Terroir Congres (ed. Benjamin Bois), Université de Bourgogne


5 Apr 2012 - Effect of GTS data on climate series

van den Besselaar, E.J.M, A.M.G. Klein Tank, G. van der Schrier, P.D. Jones, 2012, Synoptic messages to extend climate data records, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D07101, doi:10.1029/2011JD016687


16 Feb 2011 - E-OBS sea level pressure

van den Besselaar, E.J.M., M.R. Haylock, G. van der Schrier, A.M.G. Klein Tank, 2011, A European Daily High-resolution Observational Gridded Data set of Sea Level Pressure, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D11110, doi:10.1029/2010JD015468


6 May 2009 - Circulation and temperature extremes paper

van den Besselaar, E.J.M., A.M.G. Klein Tank, G. van der Schrier, 2010. Influence of circulation types on temperature extremes in Europe. Theor. Appl. Climatol., 99, 431-439, doi:10.1007/s00704-009-0153-6


18 February 2009 - E-OBS evaluation paper

Hofstra, N., M. Haylock, M. New, P.D. Jones, 2009. Testing E-OBS European high-resolution gridded dataset of daily precipitation and surface temperature. J. Geophys. Res., 114, D21101, doi:10.1029/2009JD011799.


18 February 2009 - E-OBS scaling paper

Hofstra, N., M. New, C. McSweeney, 2010. The influence of interpolation and station network density on the distributions and trends of climate variables in gridded daily data. Clym.Dyn., 35, 841, doi:10.1007/s00382-009-0698-1.


5 January 2009 - Journal paper on extensions to the ECA Dataset

Klok, E.J. and A.M.G. Klein Tank, 2009. Updated and extended European dataset of daily climate observations. Int. J. Climatol., 29, 1182, doi:10.1002/joc.1779.


1 November 2008 - Journal paper on the E-OBS gridded dataset

Haylock, M.R., N. Hofstra, A.M.G. Klein Tank, E.J. Klok, P.D. Jones, and M. New (2008), A European daily high-resolution gridded data set of surface temperature and precipitation for 1950-2006. J. Geophys. Res., 113, D20119, doi:10.1029/2008JD010201.


23 October 2008 - Journal paper on homogenization of ECA data

Begert, M., E. Zenkusen, C. Haeberli, C. Appenzeller and L. Klok, An automated homogenization procedure; performance assessment and application to a large European climate dataset. Meteor. Z., 2008, 17, 5, 663-672.


22 October 2006 - Journal paper on trends in indices in Asia

Klein Tank, A.M.G., T.C. Peterson, D.A. Quadir, S. Dorji, X. Zou, H. Tang, K. Santhosh, U.R. Joshi, A.K. Jaswal, R.K. Kolli, A. Sikder, N.R. Deshpande, J.V. Revadekar, K. Yeleuova, S. Vandasheva, M. Faleyeva, P. Gomboluudev, K.P. Budhathoki, A. Hussain, M. Afzaal, L. Chandrapala, H. Anvar, D. Amanmurad, V.S. Asanova, P.D. Jones, M.G. New, T. Spektorman, 2006. Changes in daily temperature and precipitation extremes in central and south Asia. J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D16105), doi:10.1029/2005JD006316.


13 June 2006 - Journal paper on trends in ECA and other European stations

Moberg, A., P.D. Jones, D. Lister, A. Walther, M. Brunet, J. Jacobeit, L.V. Alexander, P.M. Della-Marta, J. Luterbacher, P. Yiou, D. Chen, A.M.G. Klein Tank, et al., 2006. Indices for daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe analysed for the period 1901-2000. J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D22106), doi:10.1029/2006JD007103.


16 March 2006 - Journal paper on worldwide trends in indices of extremes

Alexander, L.V., X. Zhang, T.C. Peterson, J. Caesar, B. Gleason, A.M.G. Klein Tank, M. Haylock, D. Collins, B. Trewin, F. Rahimzadeh, A. Tagipour, P. Ambenje, K. Rupa Kumar, J. Revadekar and G. Griffiths, 2006. Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J. Geophys. Res., 111 (D05109), doi:10.1029/2005JD006290.


9 August 2004 - Journal paper on anthropogenic influence on European warming

Klein Tank, A.M.G., G.P. Konnen and F.M. Selten, 2005. Signals of anthropogenic influence on European warming as seen in the trend patterns of daily temperature variance. Int. J. Climatol., 25, 1-16.


15 November 2003 - Journal paper on trends in ECA series

Klein Tank, A.M.G. and G.P. Konnen, 2003. Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe,1946-99. J. Climate., 16, 3665-3680.


17 February 2003 - Journal paper on homogeneity of ECA series

Wijngaard, J.B., A.M.G. Klein Tank and G.P. Konnen, 2003. Homogeneity of 20th century European daily temperature and precipitation series. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 679-692.


21 October 2002 - Journal paper on ECA daily dataset

Klein Tank, A.M.G. and Coauthors, 2002. Daily dataset of 20th-century surface air temperature and precipitation series for the European Climate Assessment. Int. J. Climatol., 22, 1441-1453.


16 January 2002 - Journal paper on worldwide indices

Frich, P., L.V. Alexander, P. Della-Marta, B. Gleason, M. Haylock, A.M.G. Klein Tank, T. Peterson, 2002. Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Climate Research, 19, 193-212.


Other publications

30 November 2009 - ENSEMBLES final report

van der Linden, P., and J.F.B. Mitchell (eds.) 2009: ENSEMBLES: Climate Change and its Impacts: Summary of research and results from the ENSEMBLES project. Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter EX1 3PB, UK. 160pp
Report (51 MB)


1 July 2009 - WMO guide on extremes

Klein Tank, A.M.G., F.W. Zwiers and X. Zhang, 2009. Guidelines on Analysis of extremes in a changing climate in support of informed decisions for adaptation. WMO-TD No. 1500, 56 pp.


1 March 2006 - ENSEMBLES project report

Klok, Lisette, Albert Klein Tank, Michael Begert and Evelyn Zenklusen, 2006. Assessment of the available station density for the gridding and daily data quality/homogeneity. ENSEMBLES project report D5.8.


23 September 2004 - PhD thesis

Klein Tank, Albert, 2004. Changing Temperature and Precipitation Extremes in Europe's Climate of the 20th Century.


24 November 2003 - Extremes indices comparison table

An overview of several indices, the formulas and the coverage per project.


1 November 2002 - Newsletter contribution

Klein Tank, Albert, 2002. Changing temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe's climate. Change, 63, 14-16.



RClimdex by the Meteorological Service of Canada.

The RClimDex software package provides a friendly graphical user interface to compute all 27 core indices defined by the CCL/CLIVAR/JCOMM expert team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (see below).


KNMI Climate Explorer by Geert Jan van Oldenborgh, the Netherlands

The KNMI Climate Explorer presents the possibility to correlate downloadable daily ECA data and extremes indices with a variety of other climate data, like NAO and NINO3 indices, global temperature data, RivDis river runoff data, Hulme/Jones monthly gridded data and selected NCEP/NCAR and ERA reanalysis fields.


CAT at the University of Exeter, UK

The Climate Analysis Team (CAT) website at the University of Exeter has collected material that helps improve the analysis of extreme weather and climate events.



Norwegian climate data

Daily climate data from the Norwegian Meteorological Institute can be freely downloaded from their eKlima website.


German climate data

German daily station data can be freely downloaded from their website by following the link to Klimadata Deutschland on the left hand side.


Italian data series

Italian data series can be downloaded from ARPA Emilia-Romagna (only in Italian).


Dutch daily station series

Dutch daily station series are available from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI).


GCOS daily data

Daily data from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) are available from the GCOS Surface Network (GSN) website at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) of NOAA, USA.